Sunday, August 27, 2017

Kids and Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom

Anna Flávia Pessoa

(Final project for the course Writing for Teachers)


Teachers face many challenges in the classroom. Educators are always working on new ways to keep students engaged and motivated. Creativity, playful learning, and kinesthetic activities are constantly on their minds. Alongside that, it is well-known that people learn in different ways. Many teachers also try to incorporate these concepts in their planning. As a consequence, a lot of theories about multiple intelligences and the acquisition of a second language are surfacing. Having that in mind, let's first understand what the multiple intelligences are. Gardner (2010) has identified seven distinct intelligences:

Visual-Spatial - think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, and texts with pictures/charts/graphs.

Bodily-kinesthetic - use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and they should be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.

Musical - show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, and multimedia.

Interpersonal - understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, and e-mail.

Intrapersonal - understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners.

Linguistic - using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, and making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.

Logical -Mathematical - reasoning, calculating. They think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, and ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, and mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.

The importance of Multiple Intelligences for the acquisition of a second language

Teachers are generally concerned about their teaching styles. In a classroom filled with young learners, there´s a great deal of things to take into consideration, especially the motivation and engagement of the students.

According to Budden (2005), we can´t please all the students all the time, and it's just good to bear in mind that there are many different ways of learning. She also asks some pertinent questions. Why do some students really enjoy working in groups whilst others are much more productive working alone? Why do some learners draw pictures in their vocabulary books while others seem to need to just hear a word to be able to use it themselves? People are different and they learn differently.

Beare (2017), in his blog thoughtCo, explains that the most important aspect of using multiple intelligence activities in class is that you will be giving support to learners who may find more traditional activities difficult. The basic idea behind multiple intelligence activities is that people learn using different types of intelligences.

The use of multiple intelligences is extremely influential for beginner levels, considering that motivation is key. When we cater for the specific learning needs of a child, we establish better rapport with him/her and, as a consequence, learning becomes enjoyable from the beginning.

How to incorporate multiple intelligences in the classroom. Practical ideas for teaching kids

First, keep in mind that the teacher will probably not be able to incorporate all intelligences in every class. Having said that, the best way to start is by setting the goal for the lesson. Having done that, the teacher is capable of planning and identifying the types of activities to be used in that setting.

To illustrate this scenario, think of a classroom with kids, mainly 6 and 7 years old, and a lesson about clothes. The goal of this lesson is to introduce clothes vocabulary (t-shirt, pants, dress, shoes, socks). By learning about multiple intelligences, the teacher will provide various activities and provide meaningful learning for the students. Activities with flashcards, colors and images are beneficial for visual learners. Using the same material to create games in which kids move around can help students with interpersonal and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences. Creating songs and asking the students to follow/repeat can help musical, linguistic and intrapersonal learners. Using the games and songs to count the material or revise the vocabulary is helpful for logical learners.

These were some very simple ideas on how to engage the different intelligences. Pesce(2017) provides a lot of ideas in her blog BusyTeacher,  and she  uses the multiple intelligences theory as one way to motivate her students.


Working with multiple Intelligences can help students become more engaged and stay motivated. There are a lot of resources about it available for teachers. It is obvious that working with all intelligences all the time is hard. However, if there´s a plan, it is possible to work with some of them at the same time and, with that, build good rapport with the students.


Arnold, J & Fonseca, MC (2004). Multiple Intelligence Theory and Foreign Language Learning: A Brain-based Perspective. Servicio de Publicaciones. Universidad de Murcia. IJES, vol.4(1), 2004, pp. 119-136.

Beare,K(2017). Multiple Intelligence Activities

-Gardner,H.(2010). Multiple intelligences.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Teens 6 Magazine Project

Making writing exciting

Whenever I get to a writing lesson, I picture my students complaining and moaning about having to write anything. It’s almost as if they had a radar that indicated “boring activity ahead”. These are, thus, the lessons that intrigue me the most just for the challenge of changing that regular pattern.

DSC06109.JPGTo do so, I am always reflecting on how relevant and interesting the writing can be for my young teenage students. The formula is not so hard: just take the genre of the piece of writing into account and think about how it could be applied to their realities. That is basically what I did for my Teens 6 group. Writing news reports was the goal, so I decided to take my students from the role of students to the role of reporters.

The students were obviously excited with the idea of becoming reporters and writing a story. The idea was that they would gather in pairs or trios and would each be assigned a certain page of our class magazine. Once I had a Google slide template of the magazine prepared and ready to be accessed through a shortened link (, I instructed my students and took them to the Resource Centre to make it happen.

DSC06129.JPGI had to do it in two classes. The first attempt wasn’t so good because some of my students messed around and interfered in other students’ slides. In the following class, I told them off and told them that they would be given a last chance to finish their reports. I also said that those who didn’t finish would have their pages taken out of the magazine. That gave them some encouragement. On the second day, then, they worked a lot better and behaved as expected.

After joining forces with the Resource Centre at the Main Branch, the magazine was printed out and the students were able to have their own copies. The gleam in my students’ eyes when they saw the magazines I had brought paid off all the effort and struggle I described in the previous paragraph.

Maybe a magazine project cannot be carried out every semester, but something we can definitely do is plan our lessons every day wondering whether they will bore our students or excite them. Bearing that in mind and having some deal of willingness, we will be able to come up with many other ideas that can surprise our students and make a difference in their lives.

Lucas G. Silva

Monday, August 07, 2017

Online English Teaching: Tips and Advice

Andréa Guterres Câmara (Final Project for the course Writing for Teachers)

When we think about English teaching in the 21st century, we can’t ignore the impact of the Internet on our practice as teachers. Students of all ages can now access information 24/7. There’s YouTube, with an impressive library of millions of videos growing steadily, with about 300 hours of new content uploaded every minute. Students can watch videos, listen to different accents, and learn authentic language anytime and as many times they want, something unimaginable and unattainable not long ago. 

As our society advanced technologically, the demand for virtual classrooms was a natural consequence. To answer that, our first MOOCs, or massive open online courses, came to be in the 2000s. Since then, more and more people across the globe have been able to learn countless subjects without the need to commute to a brick-and-mortar school. This phenomenon hasn’t been different in regard to language learning.

We live in a fast-paced world; traffic can be daunting in big cities, and in some remote locations traveling to attend face-to-face classes can be quite impossible. Commuting to class used to be a chore for many, but now with a computer and a reliable Internet connection, anyone can have access to online courses and private tutors alike. As online teachers, we have the potential to reach students practically anywhere on the planet. More and more people are discovering this learning option and embracing it. “Due to a combination of factors (for example cost, convenience, learner expectations, developments in technology, and changing paradigms within education), it is clear that online learning is here to stay” (Hockly, 2015).

The challenge we online teachers face is to offer the same quality lessons to students who are miles away, as we’ve done in traditional in-person settings. Below I’ve included a few tips to address common problems and to circumvent issues we may have with technology and distance learning. They are intended for one-to-one lessons for adults, which is my niche, and with which I’m most experienced.

Start with a needs analysis and a placement test
Like with a regular course, you must know exactly what your student needs and wants to learn. It will be a partnership between your student and you. Both need to be aware of what is necessary to achieve their goal.

Choose your favorite communication platform and have a backup option
You can use Skype, which is probably the most popular platform, but there is also Zoom, a favorite of many teachers: “Zoom is excellent. It offers a wide range of annotation tools, recording facilities and great audio and video quality” (Nobre, 2017).
It is a good idea to have a backup plan. If Skype is not working, use Zoom or Google Hangout. As a last resort, you may also try FaceTime for Mac/iPhone users or WhatsApp Video Calling. The important tip is to be ready in case things don’t go as expected.

Make sure your student knows the basics about technology before you start your course
It may be straightforward to you, but many people are not familiar with all the technology available out there, let alone learn a language in a new environment. You can send them tutorials, links and schedule a call if they need extra help getting set up. Remember their success and commitment depend on a good start.

Choose your materials wisely
If you decide to use a textbook, look for one with a presentation tool. Most publishing companies nowadays offer that feature. You can install a program or download it, and have access to the student’s book on your computer screen. This way you can share your screen, make annotations during the lesson, play audio files, videos, and make your class more fun and interactive.

Create your own online lessons
You can create your own lessons using articles from blogs, news websites, or stories you saw on TV; the options are countless. There are many reasons to do this. Here I list a few: you will bring more contemporaneous issues to your lessons; you’ll be using authentic materials that can help students learn collocations, pronunciation and connected speech in a natural way; they can improve their listening and writing skills with examples taken from authentic texts; and you can also stimulate their critical thinking in the process.

Use other online teachers’ free lessons
If you are pressed for time and can’t produce your own lessons, you can also download free lessons from other teachers. My favorite ones are:

Rachel Robert’s at
Luiz Otavio de Barros at
Cristina Cabal at

Websites like the British Council and VOA (Voice of America), for instance, offer free lessons with authentic resources to make yours interesting and up-to-date on current world issues.

Use videos for storytelling
Videos can be a great resource, but don’t just show your students a video and use it as a listening skills lesson. You can use videos to tell a story.
“The traditional way to use video in the classroom is to watch the video first and talk about it later. In a Videotelling activity, the teacher communicates a video narrative through traditional interactive storytelling. In this way, the technology takes a back seat, and human communication comes to the front of the class” (Keddie, 2017, p.15).

Have your students participate actively
A challenge to teachers and more so to online tutors is to control their TTT, or Teacher Talking Time. You must prepare your lessons to be student-centered. Use Skype’s chat boxes to have your students write. Share your screen, and show them PowerPoint presentations to scaffold vocabulary and language. Engage their attention with nice visuals and videos. Ask them to record an audio at home about a topic you’ve agreed upon, and then give them feedback. These are simple and easy to do. The important thing is to create opportunities for the students to produce and not just sit and listen to you lecture them for 1 hour.

Final Considerations
Online teaching is not for everyone. Not all students will want to study online, and not all teachers will adapt to this new environment or enjoy it. “It might sound obvious, but some people simply don’t enjoy studying online, preferring face-to-face lessons” (Nobre, 2017).
As with anything relatively new and changing fast, it’s a matter of trying for yourself and seeing if you like it or not.
If you do decide to take the plunge, I recommend you create a databank of resources. The more lessons and content you have saved, the easier it will be for you to adapt your lessons and save time in the long run.


Hockly, N. (2015). Developments in online language learning. ELT Journal Advance Access. Retrieved from

Keddie, J. (2017). Videotelling | YouTube Stories for the Classroom. (Introduction, page 15). Retrieved from Kindle,

Nobre, C. (2017). Challenges in ELT: Teaching online.

 The British Council,

VOA (Voice of America),